The Guided Democracy in the Old order
The guided democracy is one of the political system in the old order, all decisions are centralized in the only president. In 1959 Soekarno dissolved the parliamentary system and decided that the constitution is under the president decree. Soekarno also dissolved the constituents which has the right to form the new constitution. Soekarno declared to back to the previous constitution of 1945 Four days later, a working cabinet with Sukarno as prime minister was announced, and in July, the National Council and Supreme Advisory Council were established. Although the parties continued to exist, only the PKI had any real strength. In the other hand soekarno also strengthen the national Army
Communist party of Indonesia welcomed happily this decision and Soekarno regarded actually the communist party of Indonesia is deserved to form the conception or it is well known by Nasionalism, religion and Communism (NASAKOM).
2. The major task of Guided Democracy
The guided democracy is implemented in Indonesia during 1959 – 1966. It was started by the president decree on 5 of July in 1959. The guided democracy basically has several tasks to solved because at that time the national condition is really not in stable condition. The major task of the guided democracy are;
a. The guided democracy has to return back the stability of the nation as the continuation of liberal democracy and the parliamentary democracy
b. The guided democracy is the result of reaction toward the parliamentary democracy. It was caused by several factors such as the limited authority for the president to control and govern the country because basically president is only the head of state. Secondly, the governance authority is governed by the political party.
3. The implementation of Guided Democracy
a. The party authority is limited
b. The president has the absolute privilege and right as the head of state and the head of parliamentary
c. The government form the governmental board such as MPRS,DPAS, DPRGR dan Front Nasional.
4. The abuses in implementing the guided democracy
a. The president position
Based on the constitution of 1945 the president position is under MPR, but in the reality it is really opposing with the constitution of 1945, because MPRS bows to president in the decision making process. it is obviously shown by appointing the head of MPRS and the vice of prime minister and also by appointing the representative of political and national army to sit in the house of representative.
b. The forming of MPRS
The president also formed MPRD based on the president decision no 2 1959. It is really contradictory with the constitution of 1945. Because basically based on UUD 1945 that the appointing of MPRS members is by holding the general election.
c. The dissolve of DPR and the forming of DPR-GR
DPR is dissolved because they refuse RAPBN in 1960 which proposed by the government. President then declared to dissolve DPR and formed DPR-GR which all the members are chosen by the president. The rule of DPR-GR members is also determined by the president. The president measure is really contradictory with UUD 1945, because based on the UUD 1945 the president can’t dissolved the DPR
d. The forming of Front Nasional
The front nasional is formed by the president decree no 13 1959, the national Front is one of the organization which really strived to uphold the proclamation aims and the aims of UUD 1945. The purpose is to join force every nayional potency to be the huge force to succeed the national development. In the reality the national front is leaded by Soekarno itself. There are major tasks of the national Front:
o Accomplishing the national revolution
o Undertaking the national development
o Returning back Irian Barat
e. The forming of cabinet
On July 1959, the president formed the new working cabinet, Ir. Juanda was appointed to be the vice president. Until 1964 the cabinet working has three times of reshuffle. The main programs of the cabinet are:
• Fulfilling the basic needs of the people
• Creating the national security
• Returning back Irian Barat
f. The RESOPIM teaching
The main purpose of RESOPIM teaching is (Revolution, Socialism of Indonesia and the national leader). It was aimed at strengthening the president position. It was widely proclaimed in the 16th celebration of proclamation independence of Indonesia.
The essence of this teaching is that all of the essence of national life must be gotten throughout revolution with the socialism as the soul and must be leaded by the only leader, here is Soekarno
g. The forming of DPAS
DPAS is formed based on the president decree No3 1959, this institution is leaded by the president itself. The members of DPAS consist of 1 vice of chief, 12 the representative of political party, 8 the representative of regional, 24 the representative of the group. The main task of DPAS is giving the answer to the government because the president is the chief. This is because DPAS which proposed unanimously that the president speech on 17 august 1959 entitled “The re – finding our revolution” which already well – known by MANIFESTO is stated as GBHN
Finally. The guided democracy is the manifestation of dissatisfactory of president Soekorno in the government system, it is only respond to the failure of parliamentary government system. Actually it has the good purpose to make all the Indonesian people live in welfare, but in the implementation it has gone far away from the initial destination with several abuses, it is the only tool to strengthen the president position.