Tuesday, December 29, 2009
Karena Tuhan menciptkan wanita dengan melembur selama 6 hari
Dan wanita telah menjadi ciptaan paling istimewa dihadapaNya.
“Ketika malaikat bertanya kepada Tuhan; Mengapa kau ciptakan ia(wanita) terlihat begitu rapuh??”
Oooo…. Tidak, engkau belum mengetahui kekuatan ciptaanku (wanita) yang bahkan melebihi ciptaanku yang lainya…………
Wanita ini akan mempunyai kekuatan untuk mempesona lelaki
Dia dapat mengatasi beban bahkan melebihi laki – laki
Dia mampu menyimpan kebahagiaan dan pendapatnya sendiri
Dia mampu tersenyum bahkan saat hatinya menjerit
Mampu menyanyi saat menangis, menangis saat terharu, bahkan tertawa saat ketakutan
Dia berkorban demi orang yang dicintainya.
Mampu berdiri melawan ketidakadilan
Dia tidak menolak kalau melihat yang lebih baik
Dia menerjunkan dirinya untuk keluarganya
Dia membawa temanya yang sakit untuk berobat
Cintanya tanpa Syarat…………………..
Dia menangis saat melihat anaknya adalah pemenang
Dia girang dan bersorak saat melihat kawanya tertawa
Dia begitu bahagia mendengar kelahiran
Hatinya begitu sedih mendengar berita sakit dan kematian
Tetapi dia selalu punya kekuatan untuk mengatasi hidup
Dia tahu bahwa sebuah kehangatan dan pelukan dapat menyembuhkan mereka..
“HANYA ADA SATU HAL YANG KURANG DARI WANITA”
DIA LUPA BETAPA BERHARGANYA DIA
Monday, November 2, 2009
NIM : 20080510012
A Comparative Politic Study on the Parliamentary System of Japan and Australia
Parliamentary system is one of the governmental systems putting the parliament as a crucial role in the government. In this case, the parliament has the authority in appointing the prime minister and dethroning it. In the presidential system, a president has an authority on the governmental system, but in the parliamentary system a president is only symbol of head of state.
The parliamentary system is distinguished by the branch of executive government, legislative branch, or parliament. Therefore there is no clear separation of power between the executive and the legislative branch. It has the better system than the presidential ones for its flexibility and the quick response to the public. And its weakness is tending to the unstable government.
Basically, even if the state has the same governmental system but it might be different in its implementation. For instance Australia and Japan, they have same governmental system which is monarchy constitutional but they have different implementation in the governmental structure. The governmental system of Australia consists of the governor general, senate, and House of Representative, and they still have to consult with the legislative council consisting of federal government, the prime minister and its ministers. While in Japan the parliamentary has the equilibrium position between the common council and the high ones.
The paper attempts to study about the differences of parliamentary system implemented in Japan and Australia. Even though both countries have the same system which is monarchy constitutional but they have differences in their implementation and the government structure.
II. Theoretical Framework
S.L Witman dan J.J Wuest explain that the parliamentary system has 4 characteristics:
1. It is based upon the diffusions of powers principle.
2. There is mutual responsibility between the executive and the legislature; hence the executive may dissolve the legislature or he must resign together with the rest of the cabinet when his policies or no longer accepted by the majority of the membership in the legislature.
3. There is also mutual responsibility between the executive and the cabinet.
4. The executive (Prime Minister, Premier, or Chancellor) is chosen by the titular head of the State (Monarch or President), according to the support of majority in the legislature.
III. Research Question
Why the Australian parliamentary system is different from the Japan parliamentary system?
Because they have a different government structure which affects to the implementation of parliamentary system.
Syafi’ie, Inu Kencana, Ilmu Politik, Jakarta, PT Rineka Cipta, 2000
Maridis, Roy C, Perbandingan Politik, Surabaya, Erlangga, 1992
Pamdji, S, Perbandingan Pemerintahan, Jakarta, PT Bina Aksara, 1985
Soehino, Ilmu Negara, Yogyakarta, Liberty, 1991
Thursday, October 29, 2009
Mahreta Adi Kuncoro
The establishment of the ASEAN Community aims to improve the welfare of all members of ASEAN through economic cooperation and intra-trade as well as among ASEAN members in order to deal with the competition on the economic scope of regional and global. Thus, ASEAN has a strong commitment to realize the mutual objectives through the high competitiveness of each in the context of holistic synergy. If this can be realized, the strategic role of ASEAN free market will have a broad cooperation to make the regional economy more robust and mutually beneficial.
There are three major pillars which lead to the ASEAN Community establishment. There are ASEAN Economic Community (AEC), ASEAN Security Community (ASC) and ASEAN Socio Cultural Community (ASCC). These three major pillars directly affect the education sector, meaning that Indonesian student can freely study in the ASEAN countries and vice versa. Therefore, the youth plays a significant role in developing the education quality in dealing with the ASEAN community 2015 which full of competitiveness.
The Youth and the Importance of Education
In dealing with the ASEAN community in 2015, the role of youth is absolutely needed to develop every aspect of the nation. It’s inevitable that the human resource is something crucial. And the most important thing is on how to prepare the youth for the better of tomorrow and on how to improve the human resources.
The role of youth and education are two factors that can not be separated from one another. Improving the quality of education is the best way to enhance the quality of human resources of Indonesia, it is highly expected that with the increasing of nation's human resources, it will brings about to the maturity of Indonesian people in facing the economic competition as well as the education sector.
Based on the global competitiveness report of The World Economic Forum (WEF) 31 October 2007, the competitiveness ranking of Indonesia to The Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) is going down comparing with 2006. From 131 countries, Indonesian Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) is on the 54th rank. It is describing the overall of 12 pillars assessed by WEF. For the basic requirement in the sub index of A, Indonesia is on the 82nd rank with the lowest level of infrastructure in the 91st rank, the macro economic stability in the 89th rank, the health and the basic education in the 78th rank. As for the efficiency enhancer in the sub index of B, the Indonesian technology readiness is in the 75th. Although there are pillars that are on the low ranking, but there is also a pillar in the top – twenty of efficiency enhancers in the sub index of B. It is the market scale which is in the 15th rank. It means that Indonesian market opportunity is potentially big but still can not be used effectively.
Therefore, with the various problems and the Indonesian people shortcomings, the increasing of human resources is absolutely necessary in dealing with the ASEAN community which full of competition in a variety of things; economic, cultural, technology, and also education, due to a human role as a major actor in the whole wheel of a nation. Because based on UNESCO data (2000) on the Human Development Index which is involving the rank of education, health, and income per head shows that the human development index decreased progressively in Indonesia. Among the 174 countries in the world, Indonesia is in the 102nd rank (1996), 99th rank (1997), 105th rank (1998), 109th rank (1999).
The improving of human resources quality can be achieved through the enhancing of educational sector. In order to improve the education quality there are two integrated factors; the role of youth as the main actor and also the government that functions as a facilitator to support educational infrastructure and media needed for the achievement of education quality.
Basically, besides the function of youth as the agent of change, the government role is absolutely required to improve the quality of human resources in welcoming the ASEAN community 2015. The government has to plan 2 programs and undertake it as well as possible. First is the improving of socialization on the importance of Indonesian readiness to the youth in dealing with the ASEAN community 2015. It can be perpetuated by the intensive socialization throughout the educational institutions. The second is improving the educational infrastructure and planning on the IT – based education. It can be achieved by allocating more national budget to the education sector.
The Socialization of youth through the educational institutions in Indonesia on the readiness of the ASEAN community 2015 is needed. It’s completely expected by the intensive socialization of the government, it will stimulate the youth or students to learn more and improve their English skill. Because the English-speaking ability as the international language is required by every single of students in order to compete and play an active role in a regional scope as well as international. So that by the increasing of education quality, they will be ready to welcome their futures and they will be the driving wheel of a nation with a high quality and dedication to the State.
Building up the human resources through education in early years is needed because the declining of students achievement in the world view. In the case of achievements, September 2004 the United Nations for Development Program (UNDP) has announced the results of studies on the quality of people simultaneously around the world through the report, entitled Human Development Report 2004. In the annual report Indonesia only on the 111th position from 177 countries. If it is compared with neighboring countries only, the position of Indonesia is far below it. In the international scale, IEA (International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement) in East Asia showed that the reading skills of elementary students for the fourth grade are on the lowest rank. The average reading test scores for elementary school students: 75.5 (Hong Kong), 74.0 (Singapore), 65.1 (Thailand), 52.6 (Philippines), and 51.7 (Indonesia)
The provision of infrastructures by the government to students through educational institutions is truly important. the provision of infrastructure by the government such as the developing of language laboratories, constructing of schools buildings that are not eligible to use, the provision of free school and creating schools with the international standard are expected to support the students academic activities. Besides that the government should improve the quality of teachers as the main student instructors and increase their welfare.
In welcoming the ASEAN community 2015, we do believe that the youth has a significant role. But we have to analyze deeply to the root of the problem and it is the human resources. The human resources development can be achieved by improving the education sector. The education has the great influence to the youth. It is functioning as the former of the character and the framework of thinking. Therefore the Indonesian government should prepare the present youth for the better of tomorrow by improving the education quality.
The guided democracy is one of the political system in the old order, all decisions are centralized in the only president. In 1959 Soekarno dissolved the parliamentary system and decided that the constitution is under the president decree. Soekarno also dissolved the constituents which has the right to form the new constitution. Soekarno declared to back to the previous constitution of 1945 Four days later, a working cabinet with Sukarno as prime minister was announced, and in July, the National Council and Supreme Advisory Council were established. Although the parties continued to exist, only the PKI had any real strength. In the other hand soekarno also strengthen the national Army
Communist party of Indonesia welcomed happily this decision and Soekarno regarded actually the communist party of Indonesia is deserved to form the conception or it is well known by Nasionalism, religion and Communism (NASAKOM).
2. The major task of Guided Democracy
The guided democracy is implemented in Indonesia during 1959 – 1966. It was started by the president decree on 5 of July in 1959. The guided democracy basically has several tasks to solved because at that time the national condition is really not in stable condition. The major task of the guided democracy are;
a. The guided democracy has to return back the stability of the nation as the continuation of liberal democracy and the parliamentary democracy
b. The guided democracy is the result of reaction toward the parliamentary democracy. It was caused by several factors such as the limited authority for the president to control and govern the country because basically president is only the head of state. Secondly, the governance authority is governed by the political party.
3. The implementation of Guided Democracy
a. The party authority is limited
b. The president has the absolute privilege and right as the head of state and the head of parliamentary
c. The government form the governmental board such as MPRS,DPAS, DPRGR dan Front Nasional.
4. The abuses in implementing the guided democracy
a. The president position
Based on the constitution of 1945 the president position is under MPR, but in the reality it is really opposing with the constitution of 1945, because MPRS bows to president in the decision making process. it is obviously shown by appointing the head of MPRS and the vice of prime minister and also by appointing the representative of political and national army to sit in the house of representative.
b. The forming of MPRS
The president also formed MPRD based on the president decision no 2 1959. It is really contradictory with the constitution of 1945. Because basically based on UUD 1945 that the appointing of MPRS members is by holding the general election.
c. The dissolve of DPR and the forming of DPR-GR
DPR is dissolved because they refuse RAPBN in 1960 which proposed by the government. President then declared to dissolve DPR and formed DPR-GR which all the members are chosen by the president. The rule of DPR-GR members is also determined by the president. The president measure is really contradictory with UUD 1945, because based on the UUD 1945 the president can’t dissolved the DPR
d. The forming of Front Nasional
The front nasional is formed by the president decree no 13 1959, the national Front is one of the organization which really strived to uphold the proclamation aims and the aims of UUD 1945. The purpose is to join force every nayional potency to be the huge force to succeed the national development. In the reality the national front is leaded by Soekarno itself. There are major tasks of the national Front:
o Accomplishing the national revolution
o Undertaking the national development
o Returning back Irian Barat
e. The forming of cabinet
On July 1959, the president formed the new working cabinet, Ir. Juanda was appointed to be the vice president. Until 1964 the cabinet working has three times of reshuffle. The main programs of the cabinet are:
• Fulfilling the basic needs of the people
• Creating the national security
• Returning back Irian Barat
f. The RESOPIM teaching
The main purpose of RESOPIM teaching is (Revolution, Socialism of Indonesia and the national leader). It was aimed at strengthening the president position. It was widely proclaimed in the 16th celebration of proclamation independence of Indonesia.
The essence of this teaching is that all of the essence of national life must be gotten throughout revolution with the socialism as the soul and must be leaded by the only leader, here is Soekarno
g. The forming of DPAS
DPAS is formed based on the president decree No3 1959, this institution is leaded by the president itself. The members of DPAS consist of 1 vice of chief, 12 the representative of political party, 8 the representative of regional, 24 the representative of the group. The main task of DPAS is giving the answer to the government because the president is the chief. This is because DPAS which proposed unanimously that the president speech on 17 august 1959 entitled “The re – finding our revolution” which already well – known by MANIFESTO is stated as GBHN
Finally. The guided democracy is the manifestation of dissatisfactory of president Soekorno in the government system, it is only respond to the failure of parliamentary government system. Actually it has the good purpose to make all the Indonesian people live in welfare, but in the implementation it has gone far away from the initial destination with several abuses, it is the only tool to strengthen the president position.
The French Revolution
(1789 – 1799)
Fall of the Bastille
French Revolution is the main transformation of the society and political system of France (1789 to 1799). During the course of the Revolution, France was temporarily transformed from an absolute monarchy, where the king has the absolute power, to a republic of theoretically free and equal citizens. The effects of the French Revolution were widespread, both inside and outside of France, and the Revolution is one of the most important events in the history of Europe.
The French Revolution is happened in (1789 – 1799). It was the landmark for the France Monarch to Republican. These changes were followed by violent disorder which included the trial and execution of the king, an enormous bloodshed and repression during the Reign of Terror, and the war involving every other major European power. Subsequent events that can be traced to the Revolution include the Napoleonic Wars, two separate restorations of the monarchy, and two additional revolutions as modern France took shape. And In the following century, France would be governed at one point or another as a republic, constitutional monarchy, and two different empires.
The French revolution emergence can not be released from the practice of government that lasted nearly absolute in all of Europe. Absolutism initially taught by an original thinker Niccolò Machiavelli. In his book entitled "Il Principe", which means the king, Machiavelli explains that in the reign, a king should have the absolute power without limit to the country, property and people for as long as the triumph of the country. Machiavelli thought this can not be separated from the background of his life in Italy at that time together difficult. Italy is the European country which is early formed in 1861as the united state.
During the ten years of the Revolution, France first transformed and then dismantled the Old Regime, the political and social system that existed in France before 1789, and replaced it with a series of different governments. Although none of these governments lasted more than four years, the many initiatives they enacted permanently altered France’s political system. These initiatives included the drafting of several bills of rights and constitutions, the establishment of legal equality among all citizens, experiments with representative democracy, and the incorporation of the church into the state, and the reconstruction of state administration and the law code.
French Revolution brought a very large influence, in a political aspect it was triggering the birth of a new understand-liberalism, democracy and nationalism as the development of revolutionary motto liberte, egalite, and franternette. In the economic ones, it was abolishing the economic system of feudal, the occurrence of industrialization in Europe as a result of economic blockade by the UK initiated by Napoleon and finally they lost the market in Europe.
II. Research Question
Why the French Revolution is happened and what are the influences for France as well as the world?
III. Causes of the Revolution
The foundations of absolute power have been developed in France by King Louis XIII (1610-1643) and the peak period of Louis XIV (1643-1715). He was well – known by his famous words are L'Etat c'est moi (I am the State), Detroit devin (I am ruling over) the top command of God). His Versailles Palace is known by the name of the Surya (Le Roy Soleil). The King and the elite live with the luxury and welfare while the people are suffering because they are already burdened by the various taxes.
The absolute of power is basically the major causes why the French Revolution is happened but besides that there are a lot of causes also triggered the emergence of it, and here are some causes:
1. The Absolute Monarch Government
The Absolute government in France was begun in the king Henry IV Navare tenure (1589-1610) continued by Louis XIII since 1610-1643 and accompanied by the Prime Minister Lous XIII Richellieu stated that "the king will not share authority with anyone as well, including the elite ones." Louis XIV is the most absolute rule for 72 years (1643-1715). In ruling, the king accompanied by the Cardinal Prime Minister Mazarin and Minister of finance named Colbert.
The characteristic of Louis XIV government:
Ø He has the title the king of Sun (Le Roi Soleil)
Ø Considering him self as the representative of God (Le Droit Devine) and every people have to bow to him as same as they obey the God
Ø The motto of (Letat Eest Moi) “I am the state”
Ø Building the luxury Versailles Palace
Ø Ruling over the state without constitution
Ø The absence of parliamentary watch because the abolition of House of Representative by Louis XIII
Ø There is no any definite rule and law for every people and the government can arrest them according to their heart’s content
Ø There is no limitation of budget and the elites can spend the national budget freely.
2. The Social and Economic Discontent
In the late 18th Century the peasant population increased dramatically. This growth in population increased the demand for more land. Land was being divided into smaller and smaller sections to cope with this problem. Eventually some sections of land were not even enough for a peasant to support his own family.
The wars in America left France in huge debt. To try and pay this debt the aristocratic social rank increased the feudal taxes for the peasants. The peasants' hardships increased greatly which further increased their resentment towards the nobility. Poor harvests in 1787 and 1788 led to a food shortage. The peasants could barely feed themselves let alone pay taxes. The peasants started to threaten violence if their situation wasn't improved.
The major economic discontents are:
Unlike the trading nations, France could not rely almost solely on tariffs to generate income. While average tax rates were higher in Britain, the burden on the common people was greater in France. Taxation relied on a system of internal tariffs separating the regions of France, which prevented a unified market from developing in the country.
The system also excluded the nobles and the clergy from having to pay taxes (with the exception of a modest quit rent). The tax burden was thus paid by the peasants, wage earners, and the professional and business classes. These groups were also cut off from most positions of power in the regime, causing unrest.
By 1789, France was bankrupt. The country could no longer pay its debts, debts that were all the result of war. One example says a great deal about this situation. By 1789, France was still paying off debts incurred by the wars of Louis XIV, that is, wars of the late 17th and early 18th century. Furthermore, a number of social groups and institutions did not pay taxes of any kind. Many universities were exempt from taxation as were the thirteen Parlements, cites like Paris, the Church and the clergy, the aristocracy and numerous members of the bourgeoisie.
This led to the long-running fiscal crisis of the French government. On the eve of the revolution, France was deeply indebted, so deeply as to be effectively bankrupt. Extravagant expenditures by Louis XIV on luxuries such as Versailles were compounded by heavy expenditures on the Seven Years War and the American War of Independence.
Edmund Burke, no friend of the revolution, was to write in 1790, "...the public, whether represented by a monarch or by a senate, can pledge nothing but the public estate; and it can have no public estate except in what it derives from a just and proportioned imposition upon the citizens at large." Because of the successful defense by the nobles of their privileges, the king of France lacked the means to impose a "just and pro portioned" tax. The desire to do so led directly to the decision in 1788 to call the Estates-General into session.
3. The Emergence of Expert Opinion Thought
3.1 John Locke
John Locke (1632-1704) believed that a government's primary goals should promote moral responsibility and protect individuals within that government and viewed civil society as an artificial condition that enforced the laws of man. Locke's views were aimed toward modern democracies and were meant to clarify the relationship between man and state. He believed that government should be selected by and follows the will of the majority, which was a fundamental claim of the Revolution.
Locke’s views, in his Two Treatises of Government (1690), attacked the theory of divine right of kings and the nature of the state as conceived by English philosopher and political theorist Thomas Hobbes. In brief, Locke argued that sovereignty did not reside in the state but with the people, and that the state is supreme, but only if it is bound by civil and what he called “natural” law. Many of Locke’s political ideas, such as those relating to natural rights, property rights, the duty of the government to protect these rights, and the rule of the majority, were later embodied in the Constitution of the United States.
In Two Tracts on Government, Locke argued that the state resulted from a voluntary agreement between individuals who established a sovereign power to protect them from the insecure conditions that accompanied the state of nature that existed without prior to a government and laws. However, Locke insists that there must be limits to political authority, which the French monarchy did not have. Locke contended that the aim of a supreme power is to preserve the state and improve the quality of life for individuals in that society, and the authority of the government must be limited by the will of the people. Contrary to the practice of a monarchy, Locke asserted that the majority of the people are responsible for the nomination and appointment of that government, rather than a divine succession based on bloodlines. This means that the individuals in a society may appoint new leaders if they are unhappy with their government's actions, as in the case of the French population in 1789. Locke's concept of limited sovereignty is fundamental to a democratic society; it is the basis of majority rule in which the majority of citizens elects the leaders of the sovereign nation.
3.2 Baron de Montesquieu
Montesquieu 1689-1755. His famous opinion is well –known by “Trias Politika”. He was distributing the power into three separated institutions; legislative (the policy maker), the executive (the constitution implementer), and judicative (supervising the executive).
Liberty is perhaps one of the most important things in a person life. In France before the revolution, many people did not have this because the government was controlled entirely by the king, who would not listen to their proposals. The French Revolution was geared towards ending this and balancing out the power among the people. A French philosopher, Charles Louis de Secondat, or Baron de Montesquieu, had he been alive at the time, would have supported this. Montesquieu?s main belief was in separation of powers in a government, because ?When the lawmaking and law-enforcing powers are united in one person,? he says, ?there can be no liberty.? Montesqueiu himself lived in France before the revolution and had seen some of the corruption there. Though he may not have agreed with some of the more radical actions taken during the revolution, he would probably agreed with it, as he did not believe in absolute monarchy and the revolution would be the only way to separate and balance out the government.
Montesquieu followed earlier thinkers in arguing that there was a necessary relationship between social divisions and these different powers. In particular, Montesquieu contended that executive power could be exercised only by a monarch and not by an elected administrator—a view wholly discarded in the Constitution of the United States. Harrington, Locke, Montesquieu, and other writers saw the concept of the separation of powers as a way to reduce or eliminate the arbitrary power of unchecked and unmanaged rulers. Separation of powers thus became associated with the closely related concept of checks and balances—the notion that government power should be controlled by overlapping authority within the government and by giving citizens the rights to criticize state action and remove officials from office.
3.3 Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau influenced the revolution by altering the idea of the effects of civilization upon natural freedoms. Rousseau mainly effected the French perception of civilization's consequences upon liberty and "most of his works deal with the mechanisms through which humans are forced to give up liberty". His main idea can be summed up in the first line of his most renowned work, The Social Contract (1762): "Man is born free, but everywhere is in chains". Rousseau argued that civilization affected liberty in a negative way, as opposed to the original perception in which civilization enhanced human liberty. Rousseau's idea of a perfect government was a republic. He believed that "a people could only be free if it ruled itself". He also believed that freedom was, in effect, "ruling oneself, living under a law which one has oneself enacted" or a system approved and made by the people. 
He also affected the development of the psychological literature, psychoanalytic theory, and philosophy of existentialism of the 20th century, particularly in his insistence on free will, his rejection of the doctrine of original sin, and his defense of learning through experience rather than analysis. The spirit and ideas of Rousseau’s work stand midway between the 18th-century Enlightenment, with its passionate defense of reason and individual rights, and early 19th-century romanticism, which defended intense subjective experience against rational thought.
IV. The influence of French Revolution
1. The Effect of the France Revolution to the France Government
The French Revolution, though it seemed a failure in 1799 and appeared nullified by 1815, had far-reaching results. In France the bourgeois and landowning classes emerged as the dominant power. Feudalism was dead; social order and contractual relations were consolidated by the Code Napoléon. The Revolution unified France and enhanced the power of the national state. The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars tore down the ancient structure of Europe, hastened the advent of nationalism, and inaugurated the era of modern, total warfare.
Although some historians view the Reign of Terror as an ominous precursor of modern totalitarianism, others argue that this ignores the vital role the Revolution played in establishing the precedents of such democratic institutions as elections, representative government, and constitutions. The failed attempts of the urban lower middle classes to secure economic and political gains foreshadowed the class conflicts of the 19th cent. While major historical interpretations of the French Revolution differ greatly, nearly all agree that it had an extraordinary influence on the making of the modern world.
2. The Influence of the French Revolution on 19th Century Literature and Romanticism
The French Revolution inspired writers of the Romantic period, who supported the revolution at first because of its potential for political and social change. Effects of the revolution in later years, however, including the impact of Napoleon, led Romantic writers to write of Napoleon's cruelty, escaping to nature to get away from the real world and its problems, victims of war, and other related topics. The work of Romantic poets William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge offer good examples of this development.
The French Revolution had an important influence on the writing of the Romantic period, inspiring writers to address themes of democracy and human rights and to consider the function of revolution as a form of change. In the beginning, the French Revolution was supported by writers because of the opportunities it seemed to offer for political and social change. When those expectations were frustrated in later years, Romantic poets used the spirit of revolution to help characterize their poetic philosophies.
V. The Critical Review
In my opinion besides the absolutism which is taught by Machiavelli, there is the influential factor that triggers the king to implement the absolute monarch government. The leadership concept of church is the determinant aspect of it. The absolute power of the pope towards its followers was stimulating the kings at that time to get the equal power as same as the pope. In Greek, the Caesar position is playing double role, He is the Head of the church and also the leader of the country. And the obedience of the people to God must be shown by the obedience to the Caesar as the representative of God.
Finally, the kings has the absolute power as same as the pope in one country. And it’s inexorable they indirectly create the despotized government or tyranny. It was bringing about to several negative impacts such as ruling over the country without constitution, ruling over without parliament supervision, ruling without definite law and also ruling without the determined national budget. The main thing there is no any limits for the king to do everything and determine every policy.
The French revolution brought about the positive effects to the people and the government it self. The election of representative government has been implemented. The codification of Law, Slavery was also abolished, and the people live in the equal right and law.
The French revolution also was resulted to the positive effects in the global world such as the influence of the French Revolution on 19th century literature and romanticism, and the inspiration for another country to have the revolution and to get rid of the absolute monarch government. The main significant effect from it is the liberal thought taught about the freedom, the equality of law and the equality of right among people. And this Liberian thought has been widely spreading all over countries and as the main step of the Democracy system.
Finally, we have to pay close attention that basically every people have the right, the freedom that must be appreciated and protected by the government. And the French revolution is the crucial lesson that the absolute power of King which limit the freedom of their people and strictly impose his will to the people only resulting to the riots and rebellions.
1. Lieberman, Jethro K. "Separation of Powers." Microsoft® Encarta® 2009 [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2008
2. "Jean Jacques Rousseau." Microsoft® Encarta® 2009 [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2008
 On July 14, 1789 an angry mob, tired of the oppressive brutality of the French monarchy, captured the Bastille, the royal prison in Paris
 Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527), Italian historian, statesman, and political philosopher, whose amoral, but influential writings on statecraft have turned his name into a synonym for cunning and duplicity.
 In 1678 King Louis XIV of France entrusted French architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart with a major expansion of the Palace of Versailles. One of Hardouin-Mansart's most noted additions was the Hall of Mirrors, added to the palace in 1684. ("Palace of Versailles." Microsoft® Encarta® 2009 [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2008.)
 John Locke (1632-1704), English philosopher, who founded the school of empiricism. Locke was born in the village of Wrington, Somerset, on August 29, 1632. He was educated at the University of Oxford and lectured on Greek, rhetoric, and moral philosophy at Oxford from 1661 to 1664.
 Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755), French writer and jurist. Charles Louis de Secondat, Baron de la Brède et de Montesquieu, was born in the Château of la Brède and educated at the Oratorian school at Juilly and later at Bordeaux. He became counselor of the Bordeaux parliament in 1714 and was its president from 1716 to 1728.
 Lieberman, Jethro K. "Separation of Powers." Microsoft® Encarta® 2009 [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2008.
 Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), French philosopher, social and political theorist, musician, a composer, music theorist and novelist, as well as a political thinker of the Enlightenment.
 "Jean Jacques Rousseau." Microsoft® Encarta® 2009 [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2008
 French legal code; the codification of French laws drawn up under Napoleon between 1804 and 1810 and forming the basis of modern French civil Law
This paper will briefly explain the history, the principles and the main actors of communism and its role in stimulating the emergence of communist party in Indonesia (PKI). Communism is a theory and system of social and political organization that was a major force in world politics for much of the 20th century . Communism is born as the strict reaction towards the capitalism in 19th century, which they truly prioritize to the individual interest and really ignoring the labor interest.
Today communism plays two quite separate roles. In a number of countries it sustains a political system, which is the official, or, as we called it, the status quo ideology. This is the clearly the case in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and some of Balkan countries. In Asia, such countries as Republican China, North Korea, Laos, Vietnam, and Cambodia have communist regimes. Today at least 30 percent of all peoples of the world live under the communist regimes and the communist ideology.
In Communism the social change must be started from the communist party. The logic is that every social exchange must be started from proletariat, but the succession of labors only can be realized by the existence the good governance party which can accommodate the interest of labors. This ideology truly limits the liberty and the religion to its followers.
The History of Communism
Communist idea has already existed since the ancient times. Greek philosopher Plato maintained that minimizing social inequality would promote civil peace and good government. In Plato’s ideal republic, an elite class of intellectuals, are deserved to be a leader and to govern the state to be welfare state.
In the 16th century English writer Thomas More, in his treatise Utopia (1516) , depicted a society based on common ownership of property, whose rulers administered it through the application of pure reason. But this idea got a lot of critics because of misgoverned of European states moreover in 17th-century England a Puritan religious group known as the Diggers advocated the abolition of private ownership of land.
Criticism of the idea of private property continued into the Enlightenment of the 18th century, through such thinkers as Immanuel Kant in Germany and Jean Jacques Rousseau in France. Philosophers of the Enlightenment maintained that it is the natural condition of human beings to share equally in political authority and the rewards of labor. The French Revolution (1789-1799), the upheaval of the Revolution brought stimulated a flurry of communistic ideas. François Noël Babeuf, a revolutionary prominent people, adopted and promoted the goals of common ownership of land and total economic and political equality among citizens .
The theory of communism was developed systematically by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in the 1840s, who asserted that human society underwent development through a series of historical stages or modes of production, and that out of the development of capitalism and the organized activity of the working class would emerge a communist society or workers' state as the culmination of history. Marx gave only the most general indication as to what constituted a communist society, and later writers modified his vision by giving a central place to the state in the organizing of such societies, and by arguing for a prolonged transition period of socialism prior to the attainment of full communism.
Almost a century and a half ago, in 1848, Marx wrote The Communist Manifesto; it transformed communism from only a theory into a strong political movement. In his opening sentence he spoke of “a specter” that haunted Europe – “the specter of communism.” Today it is a reality. Communism in the form of established political regimes or as a powerful political revolutionary movement, inspires, mobilizes, and organizes for political action a greater number of people than any other political ideology.
The Communist Founding Father
The communist ideology was founded by Karl Marx (1818 – 1883). He was born in Germany, where he studied law, philosophy, and history, Karl Marx and his family settled in London when he was thirty years old. There he began a lifelong cooperation with Engels to develop a communist ideology and to translate it into political action. In 1848 they produced The Communist Manifesto, urging the workers to rise and to take over the means production from the exploiting capitalist class. In 1864 he founded the first International aiming at uniting the workers everywhere in a revolutionary struggle. Marx like Freud half a century late suggested a new way of looking at social life and history. Accordingly, material, economic conditions are responsible for the shaping of our values, morality, attitudes, and political institution.
Four sources combined to produce the overall synthesis that constitutes Marxism. They are:
1. Hegel’s philosophy, especially his philosophy of history
2. The works of the British economists; notably, Ricardo, Adam Smith, Malthus and others
3. The French utopian socialists, even though they were criticized sharply by Marx and Engels
4. The social and economic reality of the mid-nineteenth century, particularly in England.
According to Marx, ‘All history is the clash of classes.” It also represents the emergence and the collapse of economic system. He argued that the model of historical development is throughout steps or production method: Asiatic, ancient, feudal, bourgeois (capitalist), and finally communist. Marx is the historical determinist explaining the inexorable process which free from want, awareness and human intelligence.
The communist terminology consists of two meanings. First, the commune state with his own government and federation. Second is the collective ownership. The collective ownership terminology was used by Cabet to promote the communist ideology and it was well accepted in British in 1840.
Marx and Engels purposely wrote The Communist Manifesto to emphasize the collective ownership and mutual interest. It was also functioning as the guidelines for its follower’s in implementing the communist ideology.
The True Believers
The true believers of communist ideology are the proletariat people particularly labor as the main object of it. sThe basic of this ideology is abolishing the private ownership and it supposed belong to all people.
The Communist Principals
First, the communist ideology particularly Marx has the great influence in attracting the people and gives them a promised hope. The age where a lot of social disorder are happened and they feel suffered of malaise. And Marx philosophy was the social salvation for the people.
Second, the communists believe to the historical materialistic, because they believe that spiritual factor is the result of materialistic development including economy. Therefore, they do not really concern to the spiritual development aspects. They distrust of God. Religion is strictly prohibited because considered as the opium of the people. Qur’anic Interpretation was truly condemn and regarded as the criminal action and will be punished about 6 years in jail. According to Marx, the religion appears because of class distinction. A religion is a trap for the proletariat people built by the elite ones.
The communist ideology also denying others reason and distrust it, they also deny the human equality values and the economic interpretation of history. Therefore they will do everything ward off their enemy even if from their own party.
Third, the behavior code of communist ideology is based on violence. They do not acknowledge the declaration of human rights. Marxism also do not believe to the family relationship supporting the bourgeois hegemony and they must replace it by the sexual discourse.
Fourth, the main aim of communist ideology is diminishing the state, and building society with full of freedom with no social class and all are equal, the communist ideology has the international characteristic in a politic, social, economy, and culture.
Fifth, every policy control is under the certain people called by Polit Biro and automatically it will create the central economic system with dictatorial management and government by the view.
Sixth, the abolition of the private ownership is the main factor in communism because there is no private ownership but the general ownership. It can be attained by several measures;
a. The abolition of private industry from the progressive tariff.
b. The abolition of the land owner, the capitalist through the binding of compensation.
c. The effectiveness of labor management and the proletariat in several factories.
d. the centralization of the credit fund in the national bank by using the kingdom capital at the first place
e. The education program for the child when their mothers work which fully funded by the nation
The Historical Background of communist party emergence in Indonesia
Communism ideology was stimulating working class and poor people (world) to unite against capitalism-liberalism. Thus, the communist ideology was the international ones. Therefore, international communism, called (Komintern).
Ideology and the teachings of communism began to develop in Europe (in German) by Karl Marx. The main ideology is collecting all the labor of the world, and the poor (proletarian, tacky) that considered oppressed by the capital (capitalists, the rich). Ideology make the life of this working class and poor people are more prosperous; retake the rights of those who seized and occupied by the capitalist (capitalism, liberalism) that traverse the nations.
Some of the young students of Indonesian students studying in Europe is stuck with the communist ideology. When they return to Indonesia, the students are also being a cadre of communism. They began sneak in various organizations struggle against Dutch colonialism. They are the pioneer of Indonesian communists. When they feel strong enough then they express their self as the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) in 1926.
In the Netherlands a labor leader named HJFMSneevliet establish the Labor Party-Social Democrats (Sociaal Democratische Arbeiderspartij (SDAP) as the communist movement in the Netherlands. This movement is growing to become Indische Sociaal-Democratische Vereniging (ISDV), and a pioneer communist party. The cadre of ISDV sneaked to be a member of Sarekat Islam (SI), then finally they established the Red SI-1924; as embryo of PKI in 1926.
In the process of that, figures began to struggle as a communist follower marxisme-sAtheism-communism; such as: Semaun, Darsono, Alimin, MUSO, dal others. They, as a tribe of Java of Indonesia (Moslem abangan) obsessed and enamored with the ideology of socialism-communism began to show its struggle through October revolution in Russia in 1917.
The basic principles of Communist party organization
The labor class has the variety of opposing organization. There are several labors who involved in the battles with the capitalist class. There are several cooperative organizations from the labor to help and to alleviate the burden of their members. There are several collective organizations of education, the youth organization. The main goal of these organizations is to increase the awareness of the labors.
But the high awareness and the political skill from those labors organization is not fully enough to oppose the capitalist hegemony and to make their position even stronger and join force to overthrow the capitalistic system. Therefore there must be the organized political party from the proletariat class, means that the theory of struggling must be injected to the labor movement. Marxism-Leninism is the appropriate theory to do that because it is the revolutionary party. The communist party is the labor’s party. Therefore the communist party is the organized vanguard of communism. But in order to be the vanguard, the capable and reliable organization the labor party has to have the basic organizations as follows ;
a. Centralist – Democratic principle
The party must have the political integrity and the organization union. The political integrity as well as organization are the major requirement of the communist party. To get and attain the political integrity the centralist – democratic is needed and the communist party is formed by those principals. Centralist democratic principal is the main principal of communist party which has the function to manage the authority distribution to every the head of party and also as the highest democratic implementation in the party. It means that the centralism in the party is built on the democratic principal. The implemented democracy is the centralized headquarter of leadership in the party.
The main requirements to implement the centralist – democratic principal in the organization are:
a. All of the leaders of party from the bottom to up hierarchy are elected by the members democratically.
b. All of he the party leadership board has to give the reports in a certain time to the party organization which elect them.
c. Every single party has to bow to the party organization. The small party has to bow to the biggest ones
d. The discipline of party must be undertaken as effective as possible and the party decree must be totally implemented
The centralist model guarantees the centralist leadership. by using that model, the integrity of party will be solid. This system will result to the massive trust of society and it is the credit point and the main requirement for this party to gain the victories in every actions.
The democratic model will support the members of party to actively participate in solving any problems in everyday of life. The democratic model will develop the initiative measures of the party.
The centralist democracy in the party is one of the integrity of two sides which really inherently correlated. The centralism without democracy values only resulted to the authority or ultra – democracy or unguided democracy. This democracy is sometimes well – known by the liberal democracy.
b. The discipline
The communist party has to accumulate all powers and the organization of proletariat class. The discipline is the main point of organization. Party has the agreed democracy for all the members of party from the members to be until the highest functionaries’. Only by this strong discipline integrity the party can be survive and able to maintain the relation with its members.
c. Critics and self-criticism
The party constitution stated that “the communist party has continuously introspected every mistakes and shortcomings by using the critical thought and self-critic. By knowing the self shortcoming the party can educate the party cadres. The communist party has to oppose the arrogant attitude.
In order to solve the mistakes and shortcoming of internal party we have to introspect the party it self. By using critical thoughts and self – critic in every works we can repair the false and the shortcomings of party. The party will integrity will be well developed.
In order to undertake the appropriate critical thought and view we have to remember several factors: the mistakes and the shortcomings must be regarded as the disease that can be healed. For the persons who want to criticize he must act like a doctor who want to heal the sick and for the criticized persons they have to act like the sick which always accept the constructive suggestion from the doctor as long as good for them. Therefore the critic and self – critic is needed in order to diminish the negative impacts in the internal party organization.
The critical thought and self – critics can be articulated by several mediator such as the periodic meeting and discussion. They play an effective role in developing the critics and self – critics.
d. The collective leadership
The party leadership is truly determined by good leadership and especially the collective leadership. The collective leadership method can be implemented by accumulating the aspirations from the mass. And the collective assumption can be the guideline for the collective leadership. The collective leadership is really different with the personal leadership. The personal leadership sometimes betray the aspiration of the mass and only prioritizing the personal interest. Therefore the personal leadership is truly subjective.
The collective leadership mechanism doesn’t disregard the personal responsibility. If the party doesn’t have personal responsibility it will be trapped in the bad management. In every organization there must be the distribution of the jobs, and every person has to be responsible in their jobs. Every collective board elects the reliable member who has the significant progress and good achievement. The party organization will be more consolidated and more has an influential effect to the mass if every communist works based on the collective leadership.
PKI rebellion on November 1926
In November 1926 PKI led the rebellion against the colonial government in West Java and West Sumatra. PKI announced of a republic. This rebellion was destroyed by the brutal colonial regime. Thousands of people were killed and about 13,000 people arrested. Some 1308 people, usually the party cadres, sent to the Boven Digul, a detention camp in Papua . Some people died in custody. Many political activists of non-communist government also targets to be colonial, with the reason of oppressing the communist rebellion. PKI was prohibited by the Netherlands government in 1927.
Madiun Affairs on December 1948
Current Madiun (or Madiun Affairs) is a violent conflict that occurred in East Java in September - December 1948. This begins with the proclamation of Soviet state Republic of Indonesia on 18 September 1948 by MUSO in Madiun, a prominent Communist Party of India also supported by the Ministry of Defense at that time, Amir Sjarifuddin.
At the beginning of the Madiun conflict, the Dutch government pretends to offer help to quell the rebellion, but the bid is clearly rejected by the government of the Republic of Indonesia. Indonesian military leaders even take into account; the Netherlands will soon take advantage of the situation to initiate attacks against the total armed forces of the Republic of Indonesia. Indeed, the left groups including Amir Syarifuddin Harahap, the strength to build the Indonesian Government, which has accused the U.S. tend to be aligned.
In May 1948 together with Suripno, Vice Indonesia in Prague, Musso, back from Moscow, Russia. Musso arrived in Yogyakarta on 11th August and immediately re-occupy the leadership position in the Communist Party of Indonesia. Many socialist politicians and army commanders to join Musso, Mr. Amir Sjarifuddin Harahap, dr. Setiajid, Patuk discussion groups, etc. And finally, the kidnapping and killing each other start happening, and they start blaming each other as simulator in triggering the conflict.
Strength of the Musso forces was attacked and quelled from two directions: from the west by Division II troops under the command of Colonel Gatot Subroto, who was appointed to be Governor of Military Region II (Semarang-Surakarta) dated 15 September 1948, and troops from the Division Siliwangi, while from the east attacked by troops from Division I, under the command of Colonel Sungkono, who appointed Military Governor of East Java, on 19 September 1948, and the Brigade of troops Mobiele (MBB) of East Java, under the command of M. Yasin.
The general commander of Sudirman conveyed to the government, that the TNI troops can quell army-supporting Musso within 2 weeks. It is true, the strength of the core troop-supporting Musso can be destroyed in a short time
At the end of November 1948 all the leaders and troops supporting Musso killed or arrested. Eleven leaders of the group left, including Mr. Amir Syarifuddin Harahap, former Prime Minister of the Republic of Indonesia, executed on 20 December 1948, on the Kol. Gatot Subroto.
The Future of Communism
In the classic writings of Marx and Engels, capitalism was a dark presence and communism a thinly sketched picture of a shining future. The intellectual forefathers of the communist regimes of the 20th century supposed to study and criticize capitalism by means of exact science; communism they approached through a form of prediction.
In my opinion, the future of communism will be fully determined by the state political condition where it will be implemented. The communism ideology may get a shining future in the socialist, authoritarian or totalitarian countries where the elite politics are playing a big role in determining every policies making of the government. and also those countries have the closed system government characteristic and long future oriented.
In the other hand, the communism will be not growing well in the countries which implementing the democratic systems, because those countries truly appreciate the freedom of speech, and guaranteeing the right of every citizen including embracing a certain religion which strictly prohibited by communism and regarded as the opium of the people. Democratic countries have the open government system where every decision will be determined by the majority interest through the legislative people.
The Critiques on Communism
Karl Marx idea on communism resulted to several critics and supports. But here are the own critics of mine on this ideology:
1. Karl Marx fully believe on the dialectic theory of historic materialism which glorifying the materialism as the basic of life. And the true human is not measured by the only materialism but also the spiritual aspect of them.
2. Communism disregards the existence of religion while religion is the most important in guiding the people to be the good ones which have good moral and high integrity.
3. Communism disregards the liberty and the right of their people
4. Communism allows every measures to achieve their goal including implementing the violence and killing the enemies
The emergence of communist party in Indonesia actually is really inspired by the Russian revolution on October in 1916. They did believe that the Dutch colonialization can be overthrown by the good governance of the political party it self. The history of communism was leaving the bloody story because of the strict doctrine and the ideology. The basic of ideology of communism is the labor ideology which firstly emerged because they want to get their independence from the capitalist class. The communist has no the private ownership. The existence of communist party was formally banned in 1960 leaded by the president Soeharto.
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