Name : Mahreta Adi Kuncoro
NIM : 20080510012
A Comparative Politic Study on the Parliamentary System of Japan and Australia
Parliamentary system is one of the governmental systems putting the parliament as a crucial role in the government. In this case, the parliament has the authority in appointing the prime minister and dethroning it. In the presidential system, a president has an authority on the governmental system, but in the parliamentary system a president is only symbol of head of state.
The parliamentary system is distinguished by the branch of executive government, legislative branch, or parliament. Therefore there is no clear separation of power between the executive and the legislative branch. It has the better system than the presidential ones for its flexibility and the quick response to the public. And its weakness is tending to the unstable government.
Basically, even if the state has the same governmental system but it might be different in its implementation. For instance Australia and Japan, they have same governmental system which is monarchy constitutional but they have different implementation in the governmental structure. The governmental system of Australia consists of the governor general, senate, and House of Representative, and they still have to consult with the legislative council consisting of federal government, the prime minister and its ministers. While in Japan the parliamentary has the equilibrium position between the common council and the high ones.
The paper attempts to study about the differences of parliamentary system implemented in Japan and Australia. Even though both countries have the same system which is monarchy constitutional but they have differences in their implementation and the government structure.
II. Theoretical Framework
S.L Witman dan J.J Wuest explain that the parliamentary system has 4 characteristics:
1. It is based upon the diffusions of powers principle.
2. There is mutual responsibility between the executive and the legislature; hence the executive may dissolve the legislature or he must resign together with the rest of the cabinet when his policies or no longer accepted by the majority of the membership in the legislature.
3. There is also mutual responsibility between the executive and the cabinet.
4. The executive (Prime Minister, Premier, or Chancellor) is chosen by the titular head of the State (Monarch or President), according to the support of majority in the legislature.
III. Research Question
Why the Australian parliamentary system is different from the Japan parliamentary system?
Because they have a different government structure which affects to the implementation of parliamentary system.
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